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Cucumber (BDD )Framework


BDD framework, i.e., Behavior Driven Development, is a software development approach allowing the tester/business analyst to create test cases in simple text (English).

The simple language used in the scenarios helps even non-technical team members understand what is happening in the software project. This helps and improves communication among technical and non-technical teams, managers, and stakeholders.

Cucumber Introduction:

Cucumber is a tool based on the Behavior Driven Development (BDD) framework used to write acceptance tests for web applications. It allows automation of functional validation in an easily readable and understandable format (like plain English) to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc.


What Is BDD Behavior Driven Development?

BDD transpires from the TDD, i.e., Test Driven Development, which allows the users to work with multiple test data with minimum intervention in the software code and thereby helps to increase the reusability of the code, which is a time-saving mechanism in software development/ test automation.


By inheriting TDD, BDD also has all those features along with its advantages.

  • Test scenarios are written separately in a different file named Feature file.

  • Tests are written by focusing on user stories and system behavior in a layman's language.

  • Code is subject to being written differently in step definitions files, i.e., Java and Python.



Why do we Use the cucumber (BDD) Framework?


Before the BDD framework, we were using TDD. TDD works fine in software development, provided the stakeholders are familiar with the framework and have sufficient technical knowledge. However, this may not always be the case.

BDD provides a path that bridges the gap between the technical and non-technical teams because the test cases are commonly written in simple text, i.e., English. The main advantage of BDD is the low jargon and more straightforward approach, which is easier to understand.


How to Implement the BDD Approach?

Test scenarios should be written in plain language with a detailed description of the test, how to test the application, and the application behavior, which can be understandable by all.




Cucumber – A BDD Framework Tool

Keywords: Scenario, Feature, Feature File, Scenario Outline, Step Definition

Given – When – Then - And- But Approach

  • Given: What are the Preconditions

  • When: User Action.

  • Then: Particular outcome/consequence after the above step (Results).

  • And: This is used for statements that add to the previous steps and represent Positive Statements.

  • But: This is used for statements that are an addition to previous steps & represent Negative Statements.


Simple Feature File


Sample Step Definition File


Enlisted below are the various advantages of BDD.

1. Coverage of User Stories: Hybrid Framework with BDD is meant to be combined with different features. Every resource in the software development phase can contribute to the BDD framework.


Due to its easy concept of layman text in the form of feature files, it allows the stakeholders of technical resources to write the scenarios in Gherkin language using the user stories. The compatibility of the plain text helps to gain maximum coverage on testing.


  • Feature files containing scenarios are:

  • Defined user stories from the business.

  • Criteria for the developers to determine if specifications meet business requirements.

  • Test scenarios for the testing team.

  • Shell cover for an automation tester, which allows them to write their code in step definition files separately.

  • Explained test scenarios for Stakeholders.

  • Classifying the step definitions helps the automation tester keep his code untouched, thereby helping maintain the scripts.


  • We defined user stories from the business.

  • Criteria for the developers to determine if specifications meet business requirements.

  • Test scenarios for the testing team.

  • Shell cover for an automation tester, which allows them to write their code in step definition files separately.

  • She explained test scenarios for Stakeholders.

2. Easy to understand Scenarios: Gherkin language uses plain layperson text focused on the outcome of the product being tested/developed using BDD.

As the feature file separates the technical description into a different step definitions file for automation testers, it smartly helps a non-technical person to understand the automated test easily. Any updates can be implemented in a small discussion.



3. Automation of Test Scenarios: Cucumber implementation in a BDD framework allows an automation tester to initiate the scripting quickly with the right approach. The easy language of cucumber scenarios helps them to understand the functionality in a better way.


Cucumber is a language-independent plugin that is compatible with many programming languages, e.g., Java and Python.

4. Code Reuse in Framework: Given – When – Then approach gives liberty to the testers to use the same steps as many times as we want in the feature file, which gradually helps save time for the automation testers.


Example:


Scenario: Scenario 1

Given User is navigated to Google Home Page

When User searches “Cucumber” in the search engine

Then Clicked on the Search Button

And User can see search results for Cucumber in the web browser



Scenario: Scenario 2

Given User is navigated to Google Home Page

When User searches “Selenium” in the search engine

then Clicked on the Search Button

And User can see search results for Selenium in the web browser

In the above two scenarios, we can conclude that the “Given,” “When,ANDThen” steps are reusable in the second scenario.





5. Parameterization in Feature File: A user can parameterize the gherkin steps in the feature file to obtain reusability in the file.

For example, if a user is working on a bank application, he logs in to the application again and again. Such steps could be parameterized with a different set of data, saving time for the tester.

While writing the scenarios, the user has to define the feature file steps so that the user can use the standard functionality easily.





6. Continuous Integration – Easy to Integrate: Cucumber also supports working with Jenkins. You can run the cucumber test execution in Jenkins and also implement the same in Jenkins slave machines. The cucumber reporting plugin also provides users with an expanded view to track test scenario




Conclusion: Behavior Driven Development is an ingenious approach in

agile Testing Methodology. Starting your development or testing using BDD is always recommended, as it gives you a platform to work independently with different technologies.


Cucumber is one of the best tools that helps implement the BDD approach in the software project. This allows us to work with many technologies, E.g., Java, Python, etc.


Many organizations and freelancers are widely using cucumber. It also has many communities where the users can discuss their issues and quickly find solutions to their problems.




I hope this Blog helped you understand Cucumber( BDD )Framework!!


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