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Data insights - Septic in Sepsis using Tableau

What is sepsis?

Sepsis is a life-threatening medical emergency caused by your body’s overwhelming response to an infection. Without urgent treatment, it can lead to tissue damage, organ failure and death.

Sepsis definition

Sepsis is your body’s extreme reaction to an infection. When you have an infection, your immune system works to try to fight it. But sometimes your immune system stops fighting the infection and starts damaging your normal tissues and organs, leading to widespread inflammation throughout your body.

At the same time, an abnormal chain reaction in your clotting system can cause blood clots to form in your blood vessels. This reduces blood flow to the different organs of your body and can cause significant damage or even failure.

What is SIRS?

SIRS is the abbreviation of Systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Characterized by a sequence of host phenotypic and metabolic responses to systemic inflammation that includes changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature regulation, and immune cell activation.

  • infection - identifiable source of microbial insult.

  • SIRS - two or more of following criteria are met:

temperature ≥38°C (100.4°F) or <36°C (96.8°F)

 heart rate ≥90 beats per minute

 respiratory rate 220 breaths per minute or PaCO2 532 mmHg or mechanical ventilation

 white blood cell count ≥12,000/L or 54000/L or 10% band forms

Levels of Sepsis:

There are three stages of sepsis:

1. Sepsis - identifiable source of infection + SIRS

2. Severe Sepsis - sepsis + organ dysfunction

3. Septic shock - sepsis + cardiovascular collapse

Who does sepsis affect?

Sepsis can affect anyone, but people with any kind of infection, especially bacteremia, are at a particularly high risk.

Other people who are at a high risk include:

  • People older than 65 years old, newborns and infants, and pregnant people.

  • People with medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and kidney disease.

  • People with weakened immune systems.

  • People who are in the hospital for other medical reasons.

  • People with severe injuries, such as large burns or wounds.

  • People with catheters, IVs or breathing tubes.

How common is sepsis?

More than 1.7 million people in the United States receive a diagnosis of sepsis each year. There are differences in sepsis rates among different demographic groups. Sepsis is more common among older adults, with incidence increasing with each year after the age of 65 years old.

How does SIR relate to sepsis?

Even though the purpose is defensive, the dysregulated cytokine storm can cause a massive inflammatory cascade leading to reversible or irreversible End-organ dysfunction and even death.

SIRS with a suspected source of infection is termed Sepsis.

In the Sepsis dataset, there is a feature called Sepsis Label which indicates whether a patient has sepsis on admission or not. The sepsis label holds either a 0 or 1 value. When a patient is admitted to the hospital, one of the following happens:

• Sepsis label is 0 (No sepsis on admission)

• Sepsis label is converted from 0 to 1(No sepsis on admission and then converted to sepsis)

• Sepsis label 1 (Sepsis on Admission)

How does sepsis turn into septic shock?

People with severe sepsis are already very ill, but if your blood pressure starts to drop, you become even sicker.You going septic shock. The medical definition of "shock" is a drop or fall in blood pressure. When it is associated with sepsis . It is called septic shock.

What causes septic shock?

Any infection can lead to sepsis which can then develop into septic shock if it worsens. Not every infection will lead to sepsis or septic shock. But, if an infection causes enough inflammation, it can develop into sepsis. Most of the common infections are from bacteria, but both viruses and fungi can also cause infections and sepsis. Infections can start anywhere but commonly begin in your lungs, bladder or stomach.

Analysis of Septic Shock on Patients:

The below visualization helps to identify patients with longer duration of Septic Shock thus it becomes easy to treat the patients with prolong symptoms as we are plotting the patient with Septic Shock along with the number hours they have been infected with.

Figure 1. Patients of Septic Shock

What is the survival rate of septic shock?

Septic shock is a severe, life-threatening condition. The survival rate is low. Survival depends on your age, health, cause of the condition, if you’ve had organ failure and how quickly you receive treatment. Without treatment, most people will die of septic shock. With treatment, 30% to 40% of people with septic shock die.

Analysis of Septic Shock Range with hours:

The below chart provides the biomarkers that have exceeded the threshold value thus leading to Septic Shock in patients. a Simple example is Lactate exceeding 2 is a risk and can attract Septic Shock.

Figure 2. Septic Shock range with hours

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