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Diabetes is a Risk of Sepsis Patients?






Definition Of Glucose:


Glucose is the main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells. Glucose comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances. Glucose is carried to the cells through the bloodstream. Several hormones, including insulin, control glucose levels in the blood. Glucose is a 6-carbon structure with the chemical formula C6H12O6. It is a ubiquitous source of energy for every organism in the world and is essential to fuel both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.


Glucose Level:

A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or lower is normal, 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 126 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes.



Different levels and what they mean:

1.The ranges of safe levels of blood glucose depend on factors such as what time of day it is and when you last ate. Safe levels of blood sugar are high enough to supply your organs with the sugar they need, but low enough to prevent symptoms of hyperglycemia or complications of diabetes which follow the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) guides. Dangerous levels of blood glucose are outside of this range.


2.The target levels can also vary if you have diabetes. For example, if you are diabetic and are monitoring your blood sugar, you might get a reading of 65 mg/dl. That is considered to be mild hypoglycemia, and you would be wise to eat 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates and retest your blood sugar in 15 minutes.


3.If you were not diabetic, you probably would not know that your sugar was low because you would not test and because you would not symptoms, and you would not act.


4.That is fine because your body is capable, under normal circumstances, of raising your blood glucose to healthy levels when needed, even if you have not eaten. It is important to keep them in control to help prevent issues like heart disease or nerve damage.


Glucose Level related to Sepsis:




Sepsis related to Glucose:


.Sepsis can cause hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which is your body's way of protecting your cells when you are critically ill. Sepsis can also cause hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, especially if a healthcare professional gives you insulin for high blood sugar.

· Hyperglycemia is a frequent and important metabolic derangement that accompanies severe sepsis and septic shock. Matrix-Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been shown to be elevated in acute stress hyperglycemia, chronic hyperglycemia, and in patients with sepsis.

· In patients with sepsis, insulin levels are increased but insulin sensitivity is decreased. However, there is variability in insulin sensitivity, and this creates variability in glucose levels and insulin requirements and increases the frequency of hypo- and hyperglycemia.


·Hyperglycemia in diabetes:


1)High blood sugar, also called hyperglycemia, affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can play a role in hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. They include food and physical activity, illness, and medications not related to diabetes. Skipping doses or not taking enough insulin or other medication to lower blood sugar also can lead to hyperglycemia.


2)It's important to treat hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can become severe and cause serious health problems that require emergency care, including a diabetic coma. Hyperglycemia that lasts, even if it's not severe, can lead to health problems that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.


3)Hyperglycemia usually doesn't cause symptoms until blood sugar (glucose) levels are high — above 180 to 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 10 to 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).


4)Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious symptoms may become. But some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite high blood sugar levels.


· Early signs and symptoms:


· Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help identify and treat it right away. Watch for:

· Frequent urination

· Increased thirst

· Blurred vision

· Feeling weak or unusually tired



· Below figure shows the Analysis of glucose level with respect to sepsis:



· Below figure shows the Analysis of glucose level with respect to sepsis Patients with gender :


1) If we observe in this chart age of 60 diabetic Male patients are more compare to female Patients.


· Below figure shows the Analysis of Fasting glucose level with respect to sepsis Patients:


Important test for Diabetic Patient: A1C Test


· The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes. If you're living with diabetes, the test is also used to monitor how well you're managing blood sugar levels. The A1C test is also called the glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C or HbA1c test.

· An A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of hemoglobin proteins in your blood are coated with sugar (glycated). Hemoglobin proteins in red blood cells transport oxygen.

· The higher your A1C level is, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications.


· Below figure shows the Analysis Of A1C Test with respect to sepsis:


1) According to this ,I make sepsis and Non_sepsis Patient with respect to A1C ranges.

2) These all Patients are diabetic but if we observe according to range this classification shown in this chart.


· Below Chart Shows:

1) In this chart, If Glucose level is higher than which body part is affecting more, mostly Kidney, eyes and heart affects more.

2) 126 mg/dl or higher then risk of heart diseases.

3) Diabetes damage to blood vessels occurs most often in the eyes.


Conclusion:

· Diabetic Patients also risk in sepsis diseases.

· For control diabetes or avoid risk of any organ failure A1c test is important.

· Special care for sepsis patients because risk is higher than normal Patients.


References:


· https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/a1c-test/about/pac-20384643


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