while dealing with large set of Data ,Different algorithms are used to break down data in to different categories one is done by supervised let's have look in to supervised learning.
is something which is done under supervision of someone Machine is being taught with help of charts,Tables and graphs and falls under Classification two different set of data are classified to reach out outcome.
Clustering and Anamoly
It is something, machine learn by itself using common features of Data and Cluster it keeping Data having common rules, features in one group and other set of Data in other group.
there May be time when Data do not have same common features ,they may belongs to different set of rules in that case Machine apply Anamoly techniques which completely unique exception.