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Getting Started with Cucumber BDD

Cucumber is a testing tool that supports Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) framework which is used to write acceptance tests for the web application. It allows for the creation of tests that are written in plain English and can be easily understood by non-technical stakeholders. Cucumber promotes collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders by providing a common language to describe and automate software behaviors.

Key Advantages of Using Cucumber Testing Tools

  • Cucumber uses common language i.e., gherkin syntax that can be easily understood by both technical and non-technical stakeholders which promotes effective communication and collaboration.

  • Supports Multiple Programming Languages like Java, Ruby, Python, etc.

  • Code Reusability.

  • Cucumber Testing tool focuses on end-user experience.

  • Cucumber can be seamlessly integrated into Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, allowing for automated testing as part of the development workflow.

How cucumber operates/works?

Here's how Cucumber operates:

  • Writing Feature Files (Gherkin Syntax):

The process starts with the creation of feature files. Cucumber tests are written in plain text files called feature files stored with the extension – “. feature”. These files are written in Gherkin syntax. Gherkin is a structured language that uses keywords like Given, When, and Then to define the steps of a test scenario. Each feature file represents a specific feature or functionality of the application.

Example of a Gherkin Feature File:

  • Creating Step Definitions:

After writing the feature files, step definitions need to be created. Step definitions define the actions or operations that must be executed for each step of the test scenario. These step definitions are written in a programming language supported by Cucumber (e.g., Java, Ruby, Python).

Example of a Step Definition in Java:

  • With step definitions in place, Selenium is used to interact with the web elements of the application. It provides a wide range of functions for actions like clicking buttons, entering text, navigating pages, and more. Example (Using Selenium in Java):

  • Running Tests with Cucumber Runner:

The Cucumber runner is responsible for executing the tests. It reads the Gherkin feature files, matches the steps with their respective step definitions, and executes the corresponding code.

  • Automating Tests:

While Cucumber is primarily focused on defining test scenarios and their expected behavior, it is often used in conjunction with automation frameworks like Selenium etc. This allows for end-to-end testing of applications.

  • Generating Reports:

After test execution, Cucumber provides reports that summarize the results, including information about passed, failed, and skipped scenarios. These reports are useful for tracking progress and identifying any issues that need attention.

  • Continuous Integration (CI) Integration:

Cucumber can be integrated into Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, allowing for automated testing as part of the development workflow.

By combining Cucumber with Selenium, teams can achieve automated testing of web applications using BDD principles.

How Cucumber BDD aligns with Agile practices?

The practice of BDD and Agile focuses on collaboration and communication. The desired outcome of BDD is to bring together groups such as customers, developers, and QA. The Cucumber tool is often used together with BDD to automate tests in the plain English language. This makes it possible for anyone involved in the project to understand the conversation, regardless of their technical skills.

Both Cucumber BDD and Agile methodologies emphasize the importance of understanding and meeting customer needs. Cucumber's Gherkin syntax allows for the creation of user-readable feature files that directly reflect user requirements.

In Agile, user stories are used to define small, manageable units of functionality. Cucumber BDD provides a way to further detail these user stories by writing scenarios that outline specific behaviors or acceptance criteria for each story.

Agile development often involves continuous integration and deployment practices. Cucumber can be seamlessly integrated into CI/CD pipelines, allowing for automated testing as part of the development workflow.

Both Agile and Cucumber BDD are designed to be adaptable to changing requirements.

By combining Cucumber BDD with Agile methodologies, teams can take advantage of the strengths of both approaches to deliver high-quality software that meets customer needs, adapts to changing requirements, and encourages collaboration among team members.

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