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Managing Dependencies in Cucumber Testing


In this blog post, we will explore how to manage dependencies in Cucumber testing.

Cucumber, a popular Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) framework. In complex test scenarios, it is common to have dependencies between steps, where the outcome of one step affects the execution of subsequent steps.

Understanding Dependencies:

In Cucumber testing, dependencies can include external services, databases,APIs, or even other features or scenarios within your application.

Handling dependencies Using Cucumber Hooks:

Cucumber supports hooks, which are blocks of code that run before or after each scenario. You can define them anywhere in your project or step definition layers, using the methods @Before and @After. Cucumber Hooks are useful for managing dependencies and controlling the flow of steps within scenarios.

  1. Preparing Dependencies with Before Hooks:


Before Hooks in Cucumber allows you to perform setup actions annotated with @Before will execute before every scenario. They are an excellent choice for handling dependencies by ensuring that the required resources or conditions are prepared before the scenario starts. Here's how you can utilize before hooks to manage dependencies.

In our example, we'll start up the browser before every scenario:


public void initialization() {



  • Identify the dependencies required for your scenarios.

  • Implement a before hook that executes the necessary setup actions.

  • Use the before hook to initialize and configure the required dependencies.

  • Ensure that the setup actions are performed consistently before each scenario.

2. Cleaning Up Dependencies with After Hooks:


After Hooks in Cucumber are executed Methods annotated with @After will execute after every scenario.

They allowing you to perform teardown actions and cleanup any resources or states created during the scenario execution. After hooks are useful for handling dependencies that require cleanup, such as closing database connections ,deleting temporary files, or resetting system configurations. Here's how you can use after hooks to manage dependencies.


public void afterScenario() {




  • Identify the dependencies that require cleanup after scenario execution.

  • Implement an after hook that performs the necessary cleanup actions.

  • Use the after hook to release resources, close connections, or reset configurations.

  • Ensure that the cleanup actions are executed even if the scenario fails.

By utilizing after hooks, you can ensure that your dependencies are properly handled and cleaned up after each scenario.

Shared Context for Dependency Management:

Cucumber provides a shared context mechanism that allows you to share state or context between hooks and step definitions. This can be useful for passing data or sharing objects between different parts of your test execution. Here's how you can use shared context for managing dependencies.

  • Declare shared variables or objects within a hook class.

  • Access the shared context within step definitions to retrieve or modify shared data.

Handling Dependency Errors and Failures:

When managing dependencies, it's important to handle errors and failures gracefully. If a dependency setup fails in a before hook, subsequent steps in the scenario may not execute as expected. Similarly, if a cleanup action fails in an after hook, it's important to handle the failure without impacting the overall test execution.


Managing dependencies effectively is crucial for maintaining cucumber test suites. By utilizing hooks, specially before and after hooks, you can handle dependencies by performing setup and teardown actions. With the required resources or conditions prepared before scenarios and cleaned up afterward. Shared context between hooks and step definitions allows for seamless communication and coordination when managing dependencies. By following these practices, you can enhance the reliability and maintainability of your cucumber tests and ensure that your dependencies are effectively managed throughout the testing process.

Happy learning!

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