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PostgreSQL Vs MySQL

Introduction:

When it comes to choosing the database management system, different questions might arise. It is crucial to find the DBMS that meets your needs and shows the highest effectiveness while solving the challenges you face. In this article, we are going to discuss the differences between PostgreSQL and MySQL database management systems.


PostgreSQL (Postgres) is an open-source and free object-relational database management system that provides a rich feature set and is easily customizable. Postgres has compliance with atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability (ACID) properties. It is user-friendly and great for both professionals and beginners.

MySQL is an open-source related database management system that helps organize data in tables. The tables can be related to each other and thereby they structure the data. MySQL allows for creating an effective and secure data storage system.


Differences between MySQL and PostgreSQL

let’s discuss the key differences between these database management systems.

RDBMS vs ORDBMS

  • MySQL is a purely relational database management system (RDBMS) while PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS).

  • In MySQL and other relational database management systems, all tables are interrelated. In its turn, PostgreSQL combines the characteristics of both an RDBMS and the object-oriented relational database management system.

License

  • Both systems are open-source-based.

  • MySQL is maintained by the Oracle Corporation.

  • Postgres is maintained by volunteers.

Replication

  • MySQL provides Master-Standby replication.

  • PostgreSQL not only supports it but has improved WAL processing, allowing for near-real-time replication and standby capabilities with minimal downtime for standby servers.

Performance

  • MySQL is faster for read-heavy operations, and thus it is often chosen when dealing with OLAP/OLTP systems where quick reads are the primary issue.

  • PostgreSQL in its turn excels when working with huge datasets and complicated queries, it is great for concurrent write operations.

Security

  • MySQL implements access control (ACL) security for any operations a user may attempt to perform. PostgreSQL has ROLES and legacy roles for setting and maintaining permissions. It also has native support for SSL connections and client/server message encryption and row-level security.

NoSQL support

  • MySQL didn’t use to provide any NoSQL support but it has been recently released with its 8.0 version.

  • PostgreSQL offers NoSQL support too.

Syntax and queries

  • When it comes to syntax, there is almost no difference between PostgresSQL and MySQL, as both of them are based on the SQL standard.

  • PostgreSQl is case sensitive.

The example of the SELECT statement is as follows:


MySQL:

SELECT * FROM records;


PostgreSQL:

SELECT * FROM records;

Actually, the absence of PostgreSQL vs MySQL query differences even allows queries to be interchangeable in both DBMS.

Comments, Quotes, Case sensitivty

There are some basic differences between PostgreSQL VS MySQL in terms of comments, quotes, case sensitivity. Lets check them here.

Comments:

  • Single line comments in PostgreSQL can be added using: --

  • Single line comments in MySQL can be added using: #

Handling Quotes:

  • PostgreSQL support only single quote (') character for strings.

Example: WHERE site = 'tipseason.com'

  • MySQL supports both single quote (') and double quote (") characters for strings.

Example: WHERE site = 'tipseason.com' or WHERE site = "tipseason.com"

Case sensitivity:

  • PostgreSQL is case-sensitive.

Example: WHERE site = 'tipseason.com' might give different results than WHERE site = 'TipSeason.com' . We can use case conversion like (lower , upper etc.) and compare the objects.

  • MySQL is case-insensitive. So in above example both queries gives same results.

JSON support

  • MySQL supports JSON but not doesn’t support indexing for JSON.

  • In its turn, PostgreSQL supports both JSON features and indexing JSON data for faster access.

Support for programming languages

  • MySQL provides support for Delphi, Erlang, Go, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, R.

  • PostgreSQL supports a somewhat higher number of languages, including Java, JavaScript, Python, R, Tcl, Lisp, Erlang, and others.

Why use MySQL?

  • Support for master-slave replication and Scale-Out

  • Offload Reporting and Geographic Data Distribution

  • Low overhead of the MyISAM storage engine when utilized for read-only applications

  • Memory storage engine support for frequently used tables

  • Query Cache for frequently used statements

  • Lots of resources to learn and troubleshoot MySQL

Why use PostgreSQL?

When comparing the two databases, it’s important to know the key advantages of PostgreSQL. Some developers might choose it over MySQL because it is considered to be better and faster, and equipped with much richer functionality.

The following are the main reasons to choose PostgreSQL:

  • Table partitioning, Point in Time Recovery, and Transactional DDL features

  • Ability to utilize 3rd party key stores with full PKI infrastructure

  • Since PostgreSQL open-source code is distributed under the BSD license, developers can modify it without having to contribute back enhancements

  • Object-level privileges can be provided to users and roles

  • Support for AES, 3DES, and other data encryption techniques

  • Spatial indexing features

PostgreSQL vs MySQL: Which Should You Choose?

To summarize the discussion, choosing between the two databases isn’t always straightforward. Since there are no wrong answers here, it boils down to context.

If you’re looking for a feature-rich database that can smoothly tackle voluminous databases and complex queries while allowing you to grow any application to enterprise scope, you should go with PostgreSQL.

On the other hand, if you’re a beginner looking for a database that’s easier to manage and set up while still being reliable, fast, and well understood, you might try MySQL.


Conclusion:

In this blog, we’ve discussed the primary differences between PostgreSQL vs MySQL. These included pivotal factors like speed, performance, syntax, extensibility, security, support and community, indexing, and architecture, among others, to help you make an educated decision regarding the tool that fits your unique business requirements.

We concluded that it’s a close fight between the two, with PostgreSQL and MySQL having distinct merits and challenges. The “right” choice will ultimately come down to you and how you plan to run your business.

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