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Sepsis Analysis

What is Sepsis?

Sepsis is a serious condition in which the body responds improperly to an infection. When the body's infection-fighting process go awry, it can lead to organ dysfunction.




Stages of Sepsis

  1. Sepsis

  2. Severe Sepsis

  3. Septic Shock


Symptoms of Sepsis:

  1. Change in mental status.

  1. Fast, Shallow breathing.

  2. Sweating for no clear reason.

  3. Shivering

  4. Symptoms specific to the type of infection(e.g., Painful urination from a urinary tract infection or worsening cough from pneumonia).

  5. Symptoms can vary from person to person and may appear differently in children than in adults.

Symptoms of Septic Shock:

  1. Not being able to stand up.

  2. Strong sleepiness or difficulty staying awake.

  3. Major change in mental status, such as extreme confusion.

Cause of Sepsis:

  1. Any type of infection.

  2. Common sources of infection include the lungs(Pneumonia),Urinary system, digestive system, bloodstream, catheter sites, and wounds or burns.

What is SIRS?

SIRS(Systematic inflammatory response syndrome), the body's immune system releases an excess of inflammatory substances.

SIRS can be diagnosed if any of the two following conditions are satisfied.

Temperature >38ºC and < 35ºC Heart Rate >90 beats / minute

Respiratory Rate >20 breaths /minute OR

PaCo2< 32 torr WBC >12,000 cells/mm3 or

< 4000 cells/mm3, or >10 percent immature (band) forms (leukocytosis or leukopenia)

 

Outcomes of Sepsis:

Recovery: With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many patients recover fully from sepsis

Long-Term Effects: Some survivors may experience long-term physical and phycological effects, such as post-sepsis syndrome, which can include memory problems, fatigue, and muscle weakness.

Mortality: Unfortunately , sepsis carries a significant risk of mortality, especially if not recognized and treated early. Mortality rates are higher in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock.


Analysis of SIRS, Sepsis, Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock using Tableau

We need to understand the dataset first. We have sepsis patients (Sepsis label=1), Non sepsis patients(sepsis label=0) and onset sepsis patients ( who does not have sepsis when they admitted to the hospital and got sepsis later during their hospital stay). Lets see the count of patients with their sepsis label


From the above Donut chart , we can see out of 40,336 patients 37,404 patients are non sepsis patients, which is 92.73%. Sepsis patients are 2,932, which is 7.27%.The main objective of this analysis is to find out sepsis and non sepsis patients and to provide timely medications to them so that the non sepsis patients do not reach to sepsis and sepsis patients do not get severe sepsis or septic shock, there by we can reduce the mortality.

SIRS:

SIRS is previous stage of sepsis. in our data we have 24,271 patients with SIRS and in that 21,996 are non sepsis patients and 2,323 are sepsis patients. The following charts showing the patients with their biomarkers (Temp, HR, Resp, PaCO2, WBC) values and the SIRS category shows which two or more biomarkers are abnormal.


By looking this chart doctors can easily identify which patients are at initial stage of sepsis and immediate treatment can be started. The next chart is a visualization of doctors hourly monitor of SIRS of individual patients with patient id. This will help the doctors to analyze which patient has SIRS.

SIRS requires immediate treatment in ICU for a month. Recovery will takes a longer time. It is marked that patients with SIRS have recovered normal health without residual dysfunction. The hospital administration, doctors, and nurses can use the the hourly analysis for timely diagnosis and correct treatment to SIRS patients which can save them from a life-threatening disease.

Next we created a table with patients and their vital details. In this table there is a trigger hour and transition hour.

'Trigger Hour' indicates the hour at which two or more vitals of a patient reached abnormal range. 'Transition Hour' is the hour before the 'Trigger Hour'. When the patient reaches two or more abnormal conditions the 'Trigger Hour' will activated and an email alert is send to doctor with that patients conditions. The different colors in the table shows the abnormal ranges of vitals. By clicking the email alert an email will go to the doctor with that patient's records.


Next chart explains the number of sepsis and non sepsis patients who met all 5 abnormalities. Here we can see 113 non sepsis patients and 43 sepsis patients met all 5 SIRS abnormalities.

Conclusion

Sepsis is a life threating condition that occurs when body's response to an infection becomes dysregulated. It can lead to organ dysfunction and , if severe , progress to Septic shock. Early recognition and prompt treatment are crucial for better outcomes. SIRS is a Systemic inflammatory response triggered by various factors, including infections , trauma, burns, or surgery. It involves a combination of clinical signs such as Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, and leukocytosis. SIRS can be precursor to sepsis, but not all cases of SIRS progress to sepsis.

Key Takeaways:

Sepsis is more severe condition than SIRS, characterized by organ dysfunction.

Early recognition of sepsis symptoms is crucial for timely intervention.

Fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, and addressing the underlying infection are essential in sepsis management.

Remember , if you suspect sepsis or encounter symptoms suggestive of infection, seek Urgent medical attention.

Stay informed, stay safe!

References:

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Very useful, thanks the vlog

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