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Understanding the Role of Inflammation Biomarkers in Diabetes and Cognitive Decline

Diabetes mellitus is considered an important factor for cognitive decline in recent years. Multiple changes in brain metabolites and brain structures have been reported in patients with diabetes. Thus, the prevalence of cognitive decline is closely linked to diabetes and its progression. we found parameters related to Inflammation have shown significant alterations at the early stage of cognitive decline in diabetes.


Inflammation biomarkers, such as CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, sICAM, and sVCAM, play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cognitive decline. To illustrate the correlation between these biomarkers and cognitive function, we've created interactive visualizations using Power BI.


Analysis of Inflammation Biomarkers for Diabetic and Cognitive Decline Patients Using Power BI

First, let's understand the dataset. In the dataset comprising 77 distinct patients, 65 of these individuals are diabetic, while 51 are experiencing cognitive decline classified into Mild, Moderate, and Severe Categories. These numbers underscore the significant overlap between diabetes and cognitive impairment within our patient population.





In the following chart, it's evident that the levels of inflammation biomarkers are consistently elevated among the majority of patients diagnosed with both diabetes and cognitive decline.




HbA1c and IL-6 Expression in Cognitive Decline

The inflammation markers were positively correlated with HbA1c which is a crucial marker of long-term blood sugar control in diabetic patients and negatively correlated with Cognitive scores. Using Quick Measure in Power BI, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient between HbA1c levels, IL-6 levels, and cognitive function scores. The correlation coefficient value, ranging from -1 to 1, indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables.







The resulting correlation coefficient for HbA1c levels and IL-6 levels for cognitively declined patients was 0.98, suggesting a strong positive correlation. This indicates that as HbA1c levels increase, IL-6 levels tend to decrease, supporting the hypothesis of a link between Diabetes and systemic inflammation.







sICAM and sVCAM Expression in Cognitive Decline

Similarly, we computed the correlation coefficients for sICAM and sVCAM expression levels in individuals with varying degrees of cognitive decline.

The correlation coefficient for sICAM and sVCAM was 0.83 for Cognitively impaired patients, indicating strong positive correlations. These findings suggest that elevated levels of sICAM and sVCAM are predictive of cognitive decline, underscoring the importance of endothelial dysfunction in cognitive dysfunction.


sICAM and Global Vasoreactivity in Cognitive Decline

Finally, we examined the correlation coefficients for sICAM and Global vasoreactivity levels as predictors of cognitive decline. we found that increased inflammation biomarker levels were correlated with decreased cerebral vasoreactivity(P= -0.97), illustrating that inflammation could influence brain vasoregulation and accelerate the progression of cognitive impairment in diabetes.


Conclusion

Inflammation biomarkers represent valuable tools for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes and cognitive decline.

By integrating Quick Measure in Power BI, we've unearthed valuable insights into the multifaceted relationship between inflammation biomarkers, global vasoreactivity, and cognitive decline. These quantitative measures not only deepen our understanding of the mechanisms driving cognitive impairment but also pave the way for targeted interventions and personalized treatment strategies.


References

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